2019-08-30 23:30 (местное) Select
The composite symbol denoted here as a "railed swastika" is actually a symbol that symbolizes "the Four Noble Truths" (bottom) that emphasizes "the Noble Eight fold Path"(swastika) that determines "the Middle Path."
"Составной символ, обозначаемый здесь как «рельсовая (именно так дословно переводится!) свастика», на самом деле является символом, который символизирует «Четыре Благородные Истины» (внизу), что подчеркивает «Благородный Восьмикратный Путь» (свастика), который определяет «Средний Путь»."
За помощь в переводе благодарю Алонсо Кихано.
2019-09-05 02:58 (местное) Select
Thank. The information is very interesting. I am NOT the author of the text. This is a copy paste from the site https://sirimunasiha.wordpress.com/.
「Пунктуация, нумерация, курсивы и всё такое прочее максимально сохранены авторские」
The Raja Anka or the heraldic Emblems of rulers of the Brihadhartha dynasty of Maghadha was the Bull mentioned in the Mahabaratha. But the Bull symbol is a universal symbols used by other nations on the coins and art.Most states of India too had their own Royal emblems that signifies the Royal authority of the King when placed on official documents and on coins. In fact in the text book Arthasastra of the Maghdan Empire ,the Master of the Mint was called Laksanaadhayasaka, Laksana in this name apparantly refers to the Emblem of the King and State stamped on the coin.
Closer home, the independent states of the Southern India the Pandayan’s had the stylised fish, the Chola’s the tiger[ This Animal looks very much like a Lion, than a Tiger] , Cera’s the Bow etc. These heraldic marks was also placed on seals on copper grants etc. After about the 2 Cent AD, most of these nations stopped using their Emblems. The Sri Lankan used the Four Dots with a circle emblem or the Purangantha or the Vase Symbol after 2 Cent AD.After about the 6 Cent AD, they opted to inscribe on the face of the coin ,the the name of the Country and the Value alongside the other traditional symbols. The gradual changes that took place , and why these changes took place over the last 2500 year of the coins is a very interesting study.
The Elephant was a prominent symbol placed on coins of all different ancient Empires/Nations in India and Sri Lanka. Most of these different nations had their own Raja-anka on the other side of the coin.The Emblem on the reverse of their coins was a means by which the people with in the area of Kings influence to identify and accept coins as money or reject those with other emblems. A few examples of elephant and many Buddhist symbols on the obverse of the coins with different reverse heraldic emblems is shown below.
Two Important Factors is respect of the Railed Swastika.
a. Which is the most popular symbol on ancient coins found in Sri Lanka?. With out doubt it is this Railed Swastika, perhaps next to the Lotus- A rough estimate is that over 10,000 ancient coins[ some of them dated to 3 cent BC] with this symbols on them. I have seen over 4000 of them at Museums,with Collectors and Dealers. A fair number of ancient inscriptions of royalty has this symbol. A fair number of seals inscribed with names and titles of Royalty around the railed swastika has been published.
b. The Railed swastika is unique to the Island of Sri Lanka.
THE RAILED SWASTIKA ON SEALS AND INSCRIPTIONS
i.An unread inscribed Intaglio with a Railed Swastika, the mirror image of seal and this may read Ma Ha Sa[Se?] Na Pa Tha……..to an untrained eye. This needs be read by experts. Dr Paranavitane identifies Mahasenpathi as King Dutugemunu on an inscription at
- A clay seals with railed swastika with letters Maharaja[ Great King] is visible.
- A sealing with railed swastika inscribed .. [Ma Ha Ra ] Jha Ga Mi Ni Ti Sa ha de Va Na pi Ya [The Great King Gamini Tisa Devanampiya.Perhaps of King Sadatissa [ Bopeatachchi and Wickremasinghe] . The German excavation team has published many sealing found in the same location as above sealing. The rear of these sealing was affixed on to Ola leaf’s as the outline of the grain of the Ola is still visible.
- N0 835 :-This is found on Rock Inscriptions of kings identified as King Sada-tissa at Dambulla Inscription.
- No 406 :- On Gamini-Tissa and Mijhi- Maharaja at Henannegala.
- No 563:On Inscription of Royal Prince and Princess at Kottadamuhela identified with Queen Viharamaha devi. Ms Chandrika Jayasinghe published a coins from the British Museum of a lady Standing on a Boat of the Obverse with a Railed Swastika on the reverse.In our history a lady on a boat can only be connected to Vihare Maha Devi , the mother of our hero King Dutugemunu.
3. The Railed swastika is usually found on the most early coins of the Island. It does not appear alone. In good condition coins, two symbols are found on either side. In all the types of coins with the railed swastika, a few examples having the Caitiya or three arched hill appears under it. The associations of these symbols with the railed swastika and their placement around is a special characteristic of the Sri Lanka early coins. The significance of these symbols is quite relevant to Kingship as discussed by TB Karunaratne. This will be dealt with later.
The Standard suggested as used by Devanampiyatissa on coins is also found on Tree and Railed Swastika Coins, Lion and Railed Swastika Coin.
A Swastika – “Success| King Abaya the eldest son of King Kuakanna and grandson of great king Tissa, the friend of Gods[ Devanampiya] dedicated the golden Vase channel at Galatataka to the Community of bhikhus in the Payelipavata monastery”.
A Swastika- “The great king Naga gave therefore said channel to the Sanga”.
The King Naga is identified as King Mahadathika Mahanaga [9-21 BC].
This king ‘s inscription at At Vehera Minhintale shown below has a Swastika below it.
The second part is of King Mahadathika Mahanaga [ 9 -21 AD]- a brother of King Batiya Abaya.
Dr D.P.E. Hettiarchchi quotes in his analysis of plaques in Royal Asiatic Society [CB] Centenary Volume
We consider it convenient to describe the subsidiary symbols on the plaque separately as some of them are been recorded here for Symbols appearing on ancient coins of Ceylon have not been so far satisfactorily explained; ,the explanations that are been given by scholars are mostly on symbols relating to Indian coins , whose counterparts are not always found on all of our ancient Ceylon coins. An obvious line of approach to the study will be to trace in the symbols the rites, practices and beliefs of the people for whose use they were current. Sometimes it may also be possible to refer to the symbols appearing in lithic records closely resembling those appearing on the coins. On the other hand ” for the meanings of symbols we must rely on the explicit statements of authoritative texts, on comparative usage, and on that of those who still employ the traditional symbols as the customary form of their thought and daily conversation “. Dr Ananda Coomarasmamy.
The marks or symbols on the Sri Lankan type of coins are shown below.They all have a common symbol the Railed Swastika , these are flanked by two symbols at 9 and 3 o-clock. The is the Caitiya , the boat or the three line marks uually at the bottom or 6-o-clock. The three dots is found in a few coins types at 1-30, 4-30, 7-30 and 10-30 clock positions.
Is there a patent or tradition or any methodology in the arrangement, which are peculiar to locals coins?.
Can they be distinguished from coins of the states of ancient India having same symbols?
Can these be considered as characteristics or some tradition peculiar to Sri lankan Coins only ?.
Or is this arrangement ad hoc and symbols were placed to fill space or for decorative purposes ?.
The presence of 8 symbols making a few of them astamangala [ 8 Auspicious or good luck symbols ] ?.
The Bull and Pot symbol which appears on on either side of the Railed Swastika in the figure with Narrow Waist and Dots around head. Is there any relationship between the Bull and the Taurine head[ Bull head with horns]?. What was this mark, or as what did the Sinhalese people of the ancient period interpret or accept as the customary form of their thought and daily conversation ? Was that which struck them as a Bull or Triratna or both?. Both symbols are of Buddhist significance, the Triratna -the Buddha ,the Dhramma and The Sanga or as the Bull, as Visabha with it Characteristics of Buddha. Or was the Bull a symbol of the Ksatriya [ from Hittites] represent the King or the Buddha was a Ksatriya him self.
SWASTIKA ON SRI LANKAN COINS
The Swastika is well known symbol of almost all civilizations of the ancient world. In Sri Lanka it is found on coins, rock inscriptions, and Buddhist art such as the Sacred Foot Prints. As did all other auspicious symbols on the pieces found in Sri Lanka and dated to around the 1 Cent BC.
The Swastika is found by the side of inscription connected to the Royalty of Sri Lanka in the following.The inscriptions were published by Dr Paranavitane and on line on the Royal Asiatic Society web site http://www.rassrilankasociety.lk
1. At Mihintale.Found next to a railing similar to that on the Railed swastika in the Inscription of Maharaja Gamini-Uti,identified as King Uttiya the brother of Devanampiyatisa.
4. The Swastika on top of Mast of a diagram of a ship in an inscription of a trade guild belonging to Devanampiya Kula.
The Swastika is found on coin like Lead or copper Objects found in the 1990’s at Akurugoda and a few from Anuradhapura
It is on the Lion and railed swastika piece C 14 dated to 1 Cent BC by the German E$xcavation team.
a. The Swastika is considered as a symbol representing the Sun, all Sri Lankan king claim relationship to the Mahasammata Royalty descending from the Sun. Suriya and Sun God representations were found at Anurhadapura and Pollonnaruva.
b. Swastika symbolizing a rotating disc was accepted as a auspicious symbol and is a prestigious symbol on the art of ancient Sri lankans.[ Henry Parker]
c.Chakrayudhaya is said to be the most powerful weapon associated with the Chakravarti [ Sakvithi in sinhalese]the universal king Buddha was compared to a Chakravarti and this symbol may be thus associated with buddhism. Chakraratna and the swastika may be convey the same message.
d. Or was it just a decorating symbol used to cover a vacant area on the coin. [ J Still]?. But with no commandments to adhere too, encouragement to question the teachings of precepts before putting them in to practice , the ad hoc selections of symbols is not likely to be accepted by the ancient people as a mark of royalty approving the circulation of coins.